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Distribution transition of ancient wine and distribution container (from amphora to barrel) Vol.3

Updated: Apr 15, 2022

4, the charm of barrels

・ Trees tried as a material for barrels

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The wood tested in the wine barrels was black locust, poplar, chestnut, cherry, oak, etc.

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Acacia can be seen in the barrel material in many wine courses such as the net, but this is a mistake, and it is officially a black locust (Robinia Pseudo Acacia L), not an acacia (Mimosa pudica or Fusa acacia). The only mistake is whether you are looking up the dictionary carefully. Andre Domine's "WINE" barrel material is written in many wine manuals, citing that Acacia, which is written at the beginning of the barrel material, is a known word, and that "Acacia" is used as it is without confirmation. I am.

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Fusa acacia (mimosa) entered the United Kingdom in 1818 and was planted, but it was first planted in 1864 (Pokka Castle) in the Provence region of southern France due to cold weather conditions, a new era. It is a tree and is not used as a material for barrels.

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As the meaning of Acacia, it is usually written as "Robinia Pseudo acacia L" in the "English-Japanese dictionary", and the same applies to the Super Anchor English-Japanese dictionary.

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However, gum arabic can be removed (Seyal), which belongs to the genus Acacia and is used as an additive for wine.

"Tree Dai Illustrated" Ariake Shobo, JA Owari Chuo Osawa Umeo

・ Main tree species of barrel material

Currently, the main material of barrels is "oak", which refers to oak trees in Japan, but the evergreen oak that forms the polar phase of the foliage forest such as oak, oak, oak, and oak, which are abundant in the central and Kansai regions. It is not a kind of oak tree that grows in Europe and America near deciduous oaks such as oak, oak, and oak (oak tree is suitable).

It is said that hundreds of species of Fagaceae, to which oak belongs, are distributed all over the world from the subtropical zone of the Northern Hemisphere to the temperate zone except for some tropical regions.

Oak lumber is used as a building material, furniture material, etc. In addition to being used as a wine stopper, floor material, and sound deadening material like cork oak, there are also those that collect tannin from the bark. The fruits are the perfect food for mountain animals (squirrels, bears, deer, etc.), such as the food for the Iberian pigs of the famous Jamon Iberico in Spain.

Among the Fagaceae, the genus Quercus is an important genus and is widely distributed in North America, Eurasia, South America, North Africa, etc. There are many tree species, and there are more than 300 species.

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Among them, the following types are important for winemaking barrels.

There are three types: white oak, common oak, and cecil oak.

Scientific name of oak

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The genus Quercus in the world has about 300 to 350 tree species. However, there are more than 2,800 scientific names including its varieties, hybrids, varieties, and synonyms, and the number is amazing.

It is translated as a synonym for synonym (SYNONYM), but in botanical names, the same plant has a different name (in the old days, when information was not as fast as it is now, the scholar-sensei named it arbitrarily. As a result, what is happening)

Common oak has 142 kinds of names.

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The official scientific name below

Common Oak (Quercus Rubur L) Also known as pedanculata (Q pedanculata var fastigita Loud)

Cecil Oak (Q petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein)

White Oak (Q alba L)

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Of these oaks, common oak and cecil oak grow together in the forests of France. The Limousin forest is a very fertile soil, with common oak being the dominant species. Therefore, it is characterized by a wide annual ring and a large amount of gaps such as vascular bundles.

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Cecil oak is the dominant species in central France and the Ariel region, and the soil is thin, so it grows slowly and is a dense material with annual rings.

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Cecil oak is a barrel material that contains vanillin, menthol, and octalactone and has abundant aroma potential derived from them.

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Since common oak contains phenols such as eladitannin and catechol tannin, lumber produced in Limousin is often used for brandy barrels. (French oak forest in France, Ariel, Tronce, Nubert, Vosges)

・ Barrel materials other than France

Common oak and cecil oak grow in eastern Europe and Russia, but the quality is inferior to that of France, Croatia is of high quality but low production, and American oak is sometimes said to be of high quality, but Spain. , Portugal is also attracting attention. Recently, South American wood and Austrian wood are also attracting attention because of their high quality. (Since it is a summary of the material translation of a famous barrel maker about 20 years ago, the latest trends may have changed.)

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White oak is a very attractive material and stands out in terms of both price and quality. According to material analysis, it contains more tannins than French oak, and aroma substances, especially menthol and octalactone, are attracting attention.

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It is said that a heavy roasted barrel of white oak creates a characteristic aging feeling with an aging period of about 6 to 9 months.

・ Price of barrel material

French oak US $ 2000 per 10 barrels (200 US $ per barrel)

American oak US $ 900 per 10 barrels (90 US $ per barrel)

(Price about 10 years ago, may be higher now) About 10% of the barrel price can be considered as the material price.

・ New barrel price (import price)

French oak about 80,000 to 360,000 yen (about 400,000 yen for Allilers, Vosges, Troncais)

White oak about 73,000 to 50,000 yen

Hungary, Eastern Europe about 50,000 to 70,000 yen

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The price of barrels changes every year and is only a guide. It changes depending on the import trading company, foreign exchange, and inventory status.

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Cost for one bottle of wine, barrel capacity 225 liters (300 bottles), in the case of a barrel of 100,000 yen

333 yen for new barrels only

However, if it rotates every year or several years, it will be less than that. After 20 years of use, the cost can be significantly reduced. Costs can be reduced if a circulation cycle (from winery to whiskey shochu maker) is established.

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・ Chemical composition caused by barrel material

Lactone coconut scent

Vanillin scent of vanilla

Eugenol spice scent

Furfural sweet scent such as caramel

Guaiacol Burnt smoky scent


Methyl octalactone









There is a vanilla scent in the scent of wine, but it is related to lignin, and industrially, necessary substances are recovered from pulp waste liquid, and "vanillin" is refined and commercialized by alkaline decomposition. "Edible lignin" as a dietary fiber is said to be useful for prevention of various lifestyle-related diseases such as obesity, constipation, improvement of intestinal environment, diet, etc., and research is progressing. However, it is doubtful that drinking wine will have the effect. (Jabashi)

・ Heat treatment in barrel

 The inside of the wine barrel is struck by fire and carbonized. The reason is the work that is indispensable to bring out the ingredients of the barrel material well. There are various stages, from char that is baked until the surface of the barrel is carbonized to toast that is gently roasted without burning. In the case of wine barrels, there are three stages: heavy toast, medium toast, and light toast. Recently, various tests have been conducted, such as the specification that only the end plate is carbonized.

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In the case of light toast, vanilla scent is not so much attached, but a light and delicate oak flavor is felt, and it is often used because it is burgundy for aging such as Pinot Noir.

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In the case of heavy toast, the strong aroma of wine barrels adheres, and if you drink it from a young age when it is not aged, the strong aroma of the barrel tends to be emphasized. However, over time, these characteristics are fulfilled and the aroma and taste are well-balanced.

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In the case of red wine, it has a chocolate or coffee scent, and in the case of white wine, it has a buttery scent.

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The degree of heating and the aging period are adjusted in order to match the ideas of each winery and changes in the tastes of drinkers, and to create unique flavors.

・ Domestic barrel producers

Currently, there are the following two producers of Western barrels, but there are only a few producers who mainly maintain the manufacturers and those who specialize in the manufacturers.

Maruesu Yotaru Seisakusho Co., Ltd.

Ariake Sangyo Co., Ltd.

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5, Drinking and eating habits of ancient Celts

June 2019 A joint team of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) and the University of Tubingen in Munich revealed the eating habits and eating habits of ancient Celtic people. Is a ceramic drinking container, including pottery and bronze containers imported from Greece around 500 BC, excavated in Mont La Sois, Burgundy, France, also known as the "Queen of Vix" ruins representing the Karlstatt culture period. 99 storage and transportation bottles were analyzed.

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As a result, "olive oil, milk, imported wine and local alcoholic beverages characteristic ingredients, and traces of millet and honey were identified." And "these findings were brewed from millet and barley in addition to wine." It shows that beer is consumed on public holidays. "" This was a cataclysmic period when Greek and Italian ships first reached the north of the Alps in large numbers. This is generally the Mediterranean style of the Celtic people. It is believed that only the elite were in a position to drink Mediterranean wine at the banquet, starting to imitate. "

The scholar Philipp Stockhanmmer said.

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"Analysis confirmed that they were certainly drinking imported wine, but they were also drinking local beer in Greek drinking containers."

From this paper, it can be inferred that around 500 BC, wine was imported and, of course, grapes were not cultivated. In addition, it is probable that no wooden container was excavated from this site because the general alcoholic beverage was craft beer and no wooden container was mentioned, but it was a study of the residue of the container.

If Greek and Italian ships were involved in the transportation of wine (transported by amphora at that time) from that time, it would be appropriate that the ethnic group involved in the improvement of the wine transportation container was Italy (Rome).

It is hoped that the origin of barrels will be scientifically analyzed and elucidated from an archaeological point of view through new papers and excavations that will be published in the future.

We want to eat delicious "wine" with sake as a side dish in the history of wine.

In particular, I would like to pay attention to "Japanese wine", which should be remarkable for technological innovation in recent years.

Wako Shirashi

KoV Japan

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